Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein
Born: March 14, 1879, Ulm, Germany
Died: April 18, 1955, Penn Medicine Princeton Medical Center, New Jersey, United States

Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879. He was a German physicist born in Ulm Kingdom of Wurttemberg of German. He taught himself geometry at the age of twelve. He failed an exam in order to qualify to train as an electrical engineer at the age of sixteen. He decided to study physics and math so he could become a teacher. He thought he would do good in teaching as he could think mathematically and abstractly. But he lacks imagination and practicality so he could not find a teaching position and began to work in a patent office in Bern, Switzerland in 1901. While working in this office he published many papers on theoretical physics. He earned a Ph.D. in 1905.

He developed the theory of relativity one of the two pillars of modern physics. He is mostly known to the general public for his mass-energy equivalence formula. He is one of the most influential Scientists of the 20th century. His work continues to help astronomers for study from gravitational waves to Mercury’s orbit. He received Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his services to theoretical physics and for the discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.

Einstein’s scientific legacy

There is a belief that Einstein’s discoveries were only theoretical in nature. His discoveries have contributed to numerous practical applications as every revolution is always followed by major technological advancement. He worked in the photoelectric effect which was very revolutionary in 1905. It was his great contribution to the field of quantum physics and the reason for his Nobel prize. But Einstein is always linked to relativity. In 1905 he developed Special Relativity. It became essential when very large speeds are involved by which Newtonian mechanics is no longer adequate. Its consequences are far-reaching. Relativity helped to modify the separate character of Newtonian space and time. It merges them into a single space-time. The term relativity is unfortunate as it highlights what is invariable under certain conditions. The physical laws which were not relative. In 1923 the space philosopher visited Einstein he noticed that Einstein himself occasionally used Invariantentheorie and it was too late to change the name “relativity” as it was already established. Einstein’s contributions to the field of modern physics- relativity, quantum theory, cosmology were made in the first third of 20th century. It was one of the greatest contributions in this field than another scientist. He made a mistake by judging as wrong things that were not.

The famous cosmological constant on geometric side of GR equations to describe a static universe. Einstein confessed that “the greatest error of his life”. His static solution was not valid for his purpose as it was not stable. But today on the right-hand side of the GR equations cosmological has re-emerged as the dark energy that forms 70% of the universe and it is responsible for the acceleration of its expansion which was observed in 1998. Finally Einstein observed GR equations gave a rise to gravitational waves. Nowadays the goal is to detect the primordial gravitational waves which were produced after the Big Bang. This would permit studying the essential aspect of gravity. The expansion os the universe in its origins was going back beyond the microwave background radiation coming from 380000 years after the big bang. That was the time when the universe became transparent. Einstein’s attempts toward the unification of gravity and electromagnetism were failed possibly because it was conditioned by his dislike of ‘orthodox’ quantum mechanics which today have followed other pathways. The rejection was due to the fact that in spite of its deterministic equations, quantum mechanics has probabilistic aspects the wave function cannot be observed directly.

In the one hundred years since the GR physics has taken great steps forward on the path of unification and towards the geometrization of the nature that Einstein himself outlined. The frontiers of our knowledge is determined by the unsolved  problem of Einstein. The new measurement of the cosmic microwave background est inflation model. It is connected to particle physics, quantum gravity, and string theory. All these allow us to go beyond Einstein’s Gr which does not embrace any quantum aspects. It must be considered as an approximation to a complete theory. He was not only the scientist but he was also a social activist and a humanitarian. He spoke against German involvement in World War I.there was also a criticism growing of his work by certain Germans.he also traveled the world featuring and raising funds for a Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

Einstein Died on 18 April 1955, Princeton, NJ, USA. Einstein was working on the theory which unifies all the forces of the universe in a single theory “theory of everything” at the time of his death.

Einstein’s Brain

Einstein died of an aortic aneurysm on April 18, 1955, a blood vessel burst near his heart. He was asked whether he wanted to have surgery but he refused to have surgery. He said “I want to go when I want to go. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share; it is time to go. I will do it elegantly”. Thomas Harvey the doctor at Princeton Hospital had performed an autopsy without permission and removed Einstein’s brain and eyeball Einstein’s brains. He sliced Einstein’s brain from several angles. He took brain tissue and images with him when he moved to Wichita, Kansas. Harvey gave a few slices of the brain to another researcher who requested and kept the rest of the brain in two glass jars. Harvey failed a competency and his medical license was revoked in 1988. Harvey’s study reported that Einstein’s brain had higher of glial cell per neurons as compared to other brains examined. It says Einstein’s brain cells needed and used more energy due to which he could have such advanced thinking abilities and conceptual skills. However, other researcher found out that Harvey’s research had some problems. They also said that other brains used in the study were all younger than Einstein’s brain. And only a small part of the brain was studied.

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